Cybernetics is one of the classical structural sciences that, in the middle of the last century, rang in the era of structural-scientific thinking. It is a typical feature of the structural sciences that their various sub-disciplines overlap strongly, without sharp demarcating lines. Consequently, many problems in cybernetics have also been considered as parts of neighbouring disciplines such as information theory, game theory or system theory.

Cybernetics was originally the theory of the control and regulation of machines and processes. However, over and above its technical importance, it is also relevant in biology, ecology, medicine and sociology. At the centre of the biological-medical, ecological and sociological applications of cybernetics are the control and self-regulation mechanisms that operate in living organisms and in their ecological and social networks.

The founder of mathematical and technical cybernetics was Norbert Wiener. The field of biological-medical cybernetics is based largely upon the work of Bernhard Hassenstein und Werner E. Reichardt.


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